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Volume changes in a filled elastomer studied via digital image correlation

Reference : de Crevoisier, J. ; Besnard, G. ; Merckel, Y. ; Zhang, H. ; Vion-Loisel, F. ; Caillard, J. ; Berghezan, D. ; Creton, C. ; Diani, J. ; Brieu, M. ; Hild, F. ; Roux, S. Polymer testing 2012, 31, 663-670.

Volumetric strains in a filled SBR specimen subjected to cyclic uniaxial tension with increasing extensions are studied. Digital image correlation is used to follow the kinematics of two orthogonal free faces. A volume expansion is observed past a critical elongation, which can be interpreted as the onset of cavitation. Under unloading, the volume returns to its original value and remains constant upon reloading. Increasing the elongation to higher values than the previous cycle leads again to a volumetric expansion.

Relative volume versus elongation. Arrows indicate the temporal ordering. Note that in the reloading stage of each cycle, there is no significant volume variation until λ1 reaches the maximum stretch experienced in the past. Expansion, whose onset is evaluated to λ1 ≈ 2.5, is interpreted as due to cavitation of nanovoids.